“The toil of the body had built up for him a very fine physique. It seemed to suit him, to give a homogeneity, a wonderful wholeness to his body, so that you could turn round and say: ‘Here is a man.’ And it seemed to give him a nobility, strangely in contrast with his filthy profession and with the sub-human status to which he was condemned from birth” (Anand 20).

Anand, Mulk Raj. Untouchable. London: Penguin, 1940.

Notes: Class is an incredibly important aspect of life for Bakha. It is not enough just to be defined as a “man” but his class status greatly affects how he views life. It has been ingrained in his mind that because he is not part of the “nobility” that he is “sub-human.” His humanity is deeply tied to his status. He resents his status and sees it as a form of condemnation.



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